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The R-value of baseline is 1. The value of R was presented as mean?�� SEM, with n indicating the number of rats. Student��s t-test was used to analyze the effect of antagonist. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Dunnett��s test was used to analyze the effect of ethanol. p?<?0.05 was considered to be significantly different. Western Blot.? The Western blot results were quantified using Scion Image software (Scion Corp., Frederick, MD), background band was subtracted and the band were expressed as relative protein amounts compared to ��-actin #links# (cytoplamic protein) or c-jun (nuclear protein). Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA, p?<?0.05 was considered to be significant. NO Content.? Results were expressed as mean?��?SEM. Statistical comparisons were made using ANOVA, p?<?0.05 was considered to be significant. Ethanol (87?mM) inhibited the spontaneous contraction of LP from rats (Fig.?1A). The contraction of LP decreased immediately after the ethanol administration (Fig.?1A). At 5, 10, 15, and 20?minutes after ethanol administration, R of LP decreased from 1 (baseline) to 0.80?��?0.02, 0.81?��?0.03, 0.78?��?0.03 and 0.79?��?0.01 respectively (n?=?8, p?<?0.05, Fig.?1B). Ethanol (17, 35, 57, 87, 130?mM) dose-dependently inhibited contraction of LP from rats (Fig.?1C). After the treatment with the 5 doses, R of LP decreased from 1 (baseline) to 0.97?�� 0.02, 0.86?��?0.03, #links# 0.80?��?0.03, 0.77?��?0.03, and 0.79?�� 0.01 respectively #links# (n?=?8, p?<?0.05, Fig.?1C). Ethanol (87?mM) inhibited the spontaneous contraction of LP from rats. PDTC (10?mM) and BAY (10?mM), 2 specific inhibitors of NF-��B (Mendez-Samperio et?al., 2009), SMT (10?mM), a specific inhibitor of iNOS (Su et?al., 2007), partially reversed the inhibitory effect of ethanol on the contraction of LP (n?=?8, p?<?0.05, Fig.?2A�CC). Ethanol (35, 57, 87, 130?mM) increased the expression of iNOS in colon (Fig.?3A). Pretreatment of PDTC (10?mM) significantly attenuated the increase of iNOS expression following ethanol (Fig.?3B). Ethanol (87?mM) significantly decreased the amount of cytoplasmic I-��B and increased nuclear P65 in colon (Fig.?4A,B). Pretreatment of PDTC (10?mM) partly reversed these change (Fig.?4A,B). Inducible NOS immunoreactivity was expressed in myenteric plexus (Fig.?5B,D). No labeling cell was detected in sections that were treated with PBS instead of primary antibody (Fig.?5A,C). The NO content in colon following ethanol administration increased from 1.112?��?0.128?��mol/g (control) to 7.194?�� 0.497?��mol/g (n?=?6, p?<?0.05, Fig.?6). With the pretreatment of PDTC, the increase of NO content following ethanol administration was significantly attenuated (n?=?6, p?<?0.05, Fig.?6).</p>